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News 13.02.2024

New publication: An open-source robust machine learning platform for real-time detection and classification of 2D material flakes

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Mach. Learn.: Sci. Technol. 5, 015027 (2024)
The most widely used method for obtaining high-quality two-dimensional (2D) materials is through mechanical exfoliation of bulk crystals. Manual identification of suitable flakes from the resulting random distribution of crystal thicknesses and sizes on a substrate is a time-consuming, tedious task. Here, we present a platform for fully automated scanning, detection, and classification of 2D materials, the source code of which we make openly available. Our platform is designed to be accurate, reliable, fast, and versatile in integrating new materials, making it suitable for everyday laboratory work. The implementation allows fully automated scanning and analysis of wafers with an average inference time of 100 ms for images of 2.3 Mpixels. The developed detection algorithm is based on a combination of the flakes’ optical contrast toward the substrate and their geometric shape. We demonstrate that it is able to detect the majority of exfoliated flakes of various materials, with an average recall (AR50) between 67% and 89%. We also show that the algorithm can be trained with as few as five flakes of a given material, which we demonstrate for the examples of few-layer graphene, WSe2, MoSe2, CrI3, 1T-TaS2 and hexagonal BN. Our platform has been tested over a two-year period, during which more than 106 images of multiple different materials were acquired by over 30 individual researchers

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